精通多國語言的秘訣

【哈佛商業評論電子報】包含領導、創新、策略、管理等四大領域精彩內容。歡迎訂閱,與世界一流的管理接軌! 離開純文字的迷宮,進入圖像的秘密花園!【青春畫報】讓左右腦均衡運動一下!一起來看圖、畫圖、評圖!

無法正常瀏覽圖片,請按這裡看說明   無法正常瀏覽內容,請按這裡線上閱讀
新聞  健康  財經  追星  NBA台灣  udn部落格  udnTV  讀書吧  

2015/08/31 第154期  |  訂閱/退訂  |  看歷史報份

精通多國語言的秘訣

閱讀暖身

有些人精通超過20種的語言,他們是怎麼做到的?其中有什麼訣竅?想一探究竟,請先看看以下幾個字怎麼說:

 

a) 發作(病症)

b)  纏繞

c) 投射

 

Most of us find learning a new language is so demanding and challenging. We have many different memory systems, and mastering a different tongue requires all of them. However, that tough mental workout comes with big payoffs; it isarguably the best brain training. Studies have shown that being multilingual can improve attention and memory, and that this can provide a “cognitive reserve” that delays the a) onset of dementia.

 

大部份人都覺得學習一門新語言既吃力且極富挑戰。我們人腦有許多不同的記憶系統,要學會不同語言需用到全部的記憶體。然而,這種嚴格的鍛煉帶來極大的回報,它可以說是最好的大腦訓練。研究顯示會多種語言可提高注意力和記憶力,並且其「認知儲備」的效果可延緩失智症發作。

 

How dohyperpolyglots master so many new tongues – and could the rest of us try to emulate them? Yes, we could. Tim Keeley, who is currently writing a book on the “social, psychological and affective factors in becoming multilingual,” says: “You become a chameleon.”

 

多語言高手如何熟悉這麼多種新的語言–我們可以模仿他們嗎?

答案是肯定的,正在寫一本關於「成為多語言者的社會、心理和情感因素」書籍的Tim Keeley說:「你要變成一隻變色龍」!

 

Keeley’s theory is that learning a new language causes you to re-invent your sense of self – and the best linguists are particularly good at taking on new identities. Psychologists have long known that the words we speak are b) entwined with our identity. It’s a cliche that French makes you more romantic, or Italian makes you more passionate. Importantly, various studies have found that multilingual people often adopt different behaviors according to the language they are speaking.

Keeley的理論是,學習一門新的語言使你重新發展自我意識— 那些最好的語言學家特別善於轉換新的身份。心理學家早就知道,我們說的話和我們的身份意識融合在一起。眾所皆知法語讓人更加浪漫,或義大利語讓人更有熱情。重要的是,許多研究發現多語言者經常根據他們所說的那門語言而採取不同的行為。

If you 1) identify with someone, you are more likely to mimic them – a process that would effortlessly improve language learning. But the adopted identity, and the associated memories, may also stop you from confusing the language with your mother tongue – by building neural barriers between the languages. “There must be some type of home in your mind for each language and related experiences, in order for the languages to stay active and not get all mixed together,” Keeley says.

 

如果你認同某一個人,你會更想去模仿他—這是一種學習語言最不花力氣的過程。但是你所採用的新身份和相關的記憶會在語言間建立神經障礙,而導致混淆母語進而中斷這門新語言。Keeley說:「在你的腦海中一定要為每種語言和相關經歷區隔小空間,以便讓各種語言保持活躍而不會相互混淆」。

 

“It is not just the amount of time spent learning and using the languages. The quality of the time, especially emotional c) salience, is critical.” Indeed, that might explain why Keeley could switch so effortlessly between some 20-odd languages.

 

「這不僅僅是學習和使用語言的時間多寡。學習的質量, 尤其是情感的投射更為關鍵」。確實,這可能解釋了為什麼Keeley能輕鬆轉換20種不同語言的原因。

 

Michael Levi Harris may demonstrate these principles the best. An actor by training, Harris also has an advanced knowledge of 10 languages, and an intermediate understanding of 12 more. Harris thinks that anyone can learn to adopt a new language in this way – and he has a few tips, based on his experiences of acting.

 

Michael Levi Harris可能是這個理論的最佳代言。他是受過專業訓練的演員,精通10門語言,

對另外超過12門語言也有中等程度的理解。Harris認為我們每個人都可以透過這樣的方式來學習一種新語言—基於他的演出經驗。

 

The important thing, he says, is to try to imitate without even considering the spelling of the words. “Everyone can listen and repeat,” he says. “You may find yourself over-exaggerating, in the same way that an actor may be a little 2) over-the-top in their performance to start with – but that’s a crucial part of the process”

 

他說,最重要的事就是模仿時不要考慮拼字, 「每個人都能聆聽和重覆」, 你可能會發現自已有點誇張,就跟一位演員最開始表演時有點演過頭—但這是關鍵性的一步。

 

He also says you should try to overcome the embarrassment associated with producing “strange” noises” – such as the guttural sounds in Arabic. “It’s all to do with owning the language, which is what actors have to do to make the audience believe that these words are yours.”

 

Harris另外提到,我們應該儘量去克服發「怪」音的尷尬—例如阿拉伯語的喉音。「這所做的一切只為了掌握該語言,就如同演員一樣必須使觀眾相信所有的台詞都是你自己的。」

 

You can practice a little and often – perhaps just for 15-minutestints, four times a day. “I think the analogies exercise are quite good,” says Alex Rawlings, who has developed a series of polyglot workshop with Richard Simcott to teach their techniques. Even if you are too busy or tired to do serious study, just practicing a dialogue or listening to a foreign pop song can help, says Simcott.

 

你可以經常性的練習一點點—也許就15分鐘,一天四次。「我認為這和運動相比是很恰當的」,和Richard Simcott合作發展「多語者工作坊」,並教多語言技巧的Alex Rawlings說。Simcott也說:「即使你很忙或者很累,不能認真學習,僅僅練習一段對話或者聽一首外文流行歌都會有所幫助。」

 

口語詞彙

1. identify with: 視…為一體,認同

 

     I can identify with the problems you’re having..

     對於你現在面對的問題,我感同身受。

 

2. Over the top 過火;言過其實

 

    超過最高點,表示誇大其詞的,也可以用來描述事情超過界限。

    To blame Matt for the collapse of the business seems way over the top. 把公司的瓦解都責怪在賣特身上似乎有點誇大。

更多世界公民文化中心的文章
▲Top

 
每發現英文句子裡的一個bug,就代表你的英文程度又更進了一步!以下這五個例句都有不易發現的錯誤,請試試看能不能把它們都挑出來。
  1. My sister slept late last night. 我姐姐昨晚很晚睡。
  2. Your experiences in Africa are the most interesting. 你在非洲的經歷非常有趣。
  3. The residents were horrified by the pollution from the cement work. 居民對於來自水泥廠的汙染感到驚懼。
  4. My American friend, Kevin likes Chinese dishes very much. 我的美國朋友-凱文非常喜歡中國菜。
  5. Many people are suffering from the earthquake. Let’s arise to the occasion. 很多人正因地震而受苦,讓我們站出來接受挑戰吧。

▲Top

 
  1. My sister went to bed/sleep late last night. sleep指的是睡著的「狀態」,此句講的是很晚才上床或很晚才睡覺,因此須以go to來強調「動作」。sleep意思會變成睡到很晚,意思不同。
  2. Your experiences in Africa are really most interesting.看到形容詞最高級,不代表前面一定要加the。譬如本句中most表示「非常、極為」時,前面就不用加the。
  3. The residents were horrified by the pollution from the cement works.work解釋為「工廠」時,單複數的形式都是works。
  4. My American friend, Kevin likes Chinese food very much. dish通常是指「一道菜」或盛菜的「碟、盤」;泛指所有菜餚時,應該用food才對。
  5. Many people are suffering from the earthquake. Let’s rise to the occasion. rise to the occasion是慣用片語,指能應付局面或接受挑戰,多譯為「站出來面對」。

更多Debug 題目
▲Top

 
「有任務的旅行」10/30(五)全台啟航!
6位台灣青年橫跨世界5大洲,看見世界,看見最真實的自己
 

 

本電子報著作權均屬「聯合線上公司」或授權「聯合線上公司」使用之合法權利人所有,
禁止未經授權轉載或節錄。若對電子報內容有任何疑問或要求轉載授權,請【
聯絡我們】。
  免費電子報 | 著作權聲明 | 隱私權聲明 | 聯絡我們
udnfamily : news | video | money | stars | health | reading | mobile | data | NBA TAIWAN | blog | shopping

發表迴響